Mark Danner

In Search of the Arab Awakening: The US and the Modern Middle East

In Search of the Arab Awakening:

The US and the Modern Middle East

Al Quds Bard , Abu Dis, Room 5

Fall 2011, Wednesday 10 – 12:40

Mark Danner

In this seminar we will grasp hands and together step firmly into the onrushing floodwaters of the so-called “Arab Awakening,” casting an unflinching gaze about us as the upheavals of the Arab Spring mutate and evolve, from an angrier Arab Summer into an uncertain Arab Fall. We will delve into the immediate origins, at the hands of the fruit vendor Mohamed Bouazizi, who set himself on fire in the backwater Tunisian town of Sidi Bouzid. We will examine the popular movements that followed, and overthrew longtime dictators in Tunis and Cairo. We will investigate the brutal suppression of the demonstrations in Bahrain and the eruption of civil wars in Yemen and Libya, and we will follow the ongoing and increasingly bloody struggle, in cities across Syria, to oppose the regime of Bashar al-Assad. All the while we will look into the various factors – political, social, demographic, technological – that form a background to this region-wide upheaval, while paying particular attention to American policy, its history, its evolution and its relevance. In our readings and discussions, we will struggle to consider rapidly moving daily events against a broader awareness of the history of popular political change, from the uprisings of the Roman republic to the great modern revolutions of America, France and Russia. All this, we hope, will help us to analyze complex daily events as they happen and better understand their significance and prospects, as the hopes of the Arab Spring mutate and evolve into yet another uncertain season – and an unknown future yet to be built. 



Main Class Requirements: This is a seminar — a discussion class – which means the success of the class is dependent on student participation. The most important requirements are that students

*Attend all class sessions
*Participate in discussions
*Do all reading and writing assignments

A student’s record of attendance and participation in class discussion, together with the thoroughness of his or her preparation, will determine the success of our class and contribute the better part of the grade.

Schedule: Note that all classes will take place on Wednesday mornings, 10 to 12:40 a.m., and will be divided at about the halfway point by a fifteen-minute break.

Reading: This seminar is about the here and now, which is to say, it is about “what’s in the news.” Most of our reading will be drawn from the contemporary press — newspapers, magazines, television, websites — and you will receive these articles either in the class reader, in photocopy during class, or by means of links sent via email. Some readings are listed in the draft syllabus below, but keep in mind that the assignments will shift often, depending on ongoing events. It is critical, though, that you keep up with daily reporting from the region, including local press accounts and international coverage. A vast store of reporting can be found on the web, and I urge you to explore. Beyond Al Jazeera, which is vital, I would strongly recommend The Economist and The GuardianThe Washington Post and The New York Times, among many other publications. Also good is Foreign Policy magazine, which has a useful website.

Writing: Students will be assigned several short papers, for which they are meant to draw on the assigned reading and on class discussions. To bolster the clarity and vigor of your English prose, I strongly suggest reading two works: George Orwell’s essay, “Politics and the English Language” and Strunk and White’s little manual, The Elements of Style. The Orwell can be found easily on the internet by googling the author and title.

Films: From time to time during the term we will screen films intended to complement our studies.


Rough Syllabus

Following is a rough outline of the course and an indication of some of the assigned reading. Because our attention will shift depending on events, the schedule and the readings associated with it are subject to change. Those assignments not in the course reader will be handed out in class or sent via email links.

September 21, 2011 — (Class Rescheduled due to settlers with laughably large guns marching on the main roads between Ramallah and Abu Dis)

September 28, 2011 — Introduction: History, US Policy and the Arab Spring
– Introduction to class and expectations
– Discussions of historical revolutions, specifically the French revolution (1789), The Russian Revolution (1917), and most importantly the European Revolution (1848), unique and relevant for is spread across several states in a region
– An introduction to the beginning of the Arab Spring in Tunisia, with the self immolation of Mohammad Bouazizi, and the subsequent consequences both inside an outside of Tunisia
– A discussion of Legitimacy, as defined by Max Weber
– An introduction to role of the U.S. in the Arab spring, focusing on the dynamics and organization of the U.S. National Security Council

October 5, 2011 — Interpreting Revolution and Counter-Revolution: Differing Views of the Coming of Spring

Michael Scott Doran, “Heirs of Nasser: Who Will Benefit From the Second Arab Revolution,” Foreign Affairs, April/May 2011.

Hussein Agha and Robert Malley “The Arab Counterrevolution,” The New York Review of Books, August 31, 2011.

– Discussed the roles of businessmen on revolutions, and how their shifts in allegiance shift the balance of power in a revolution to those they favor
– Plasticity of Politics: idea that no matter the outcome of a revolution, something will change as a result of it
– Discussed the potential plans of Syrian Government, ideas of Assad that may end the revolution
– Prevention of revolution in Morocco and Jordan
– Fundamental Interests of U.S. in the region: oil; WMD prevention; protect Israel/Saudi/Egypt; countering terrorism; Promoting Democratic reform that bolsters U.S.-led order
– Discussion of role of U.S. in Middle East in lieu of these interests


October 12, 2011 – (Class Rescheduled due to Prisoner Hunger Strikes)

October 19, 2011 —  Sporadic Springs: Different types of Uprisings in the Region and their Effects on U.S. Interests

Coates Ulrichsen, Kristian. “The Arab 1989 Revisited“. openDemocracy, 9/27/2011.

Myers, Steven Lee. “Tumult of Arab Spring Prompts Worries in Washington“. New York Times, 09/17/2011.

Filiu, Jean-Pierre. The Arab Revolution: Ten Lessons from the Democratic Uprising. London: C. Hurst & Co. Publishers, 2011.
        -Chapters 1-3, “Arabs are No Exception”, “Muslims are not only Muslims”, and          “Anger is Power for the Younger”

Corbin, Jane. “Inside the Hidden Revolution“, A BBC News Report on the beginnings of the Syrian Revolution in Darra. 

– Types of Revolutions Discussed in the Ulrichsen article: nonviolent, top-down, sustained violent struggle, the counter-revolutions
– Role of each of these types in the developing Arab Spring
– Reasons for foreign interest in Libya
– Role of Marginal Capacity in foreign oil interests
– Showing and Discussion of Jane Corbin Piece, focus on image and media technology in revolution

Recommended Reading:
Rosen, Nir. “A conversation with Grand Mufti Hassoun“. Al-Jazeera English, 3/10/11.

Ashour, Omar. “Egypt secularists and liberals afraid of democracy?“. BBC News, 13/7/2011.

Ashour, Omar. “Egypt’s democratic Jihadists?“. Foreign Policy: The Middle East Journal, 13/7/2011.

Rosen, Nir. “Ghosts in the Mosques“. Al-Jazeera English, 30/9/2011.

Ashour, Omar. “History’s lessons: Dismantling Egypt’s security agency“. BBC News, 9/3/2011.

Al-Faisal, Turki. “Veto a State, Lose an Ally“. The New York Times, 9/11/2011.

Rosen, Nir. “Syria’s Symphony of Scorn“. Al-Jazeera English, 9/30/2011.

Rosen, Nir. “The Tides of Mosques“. Al-Jazeera, 02/10/2011.

October 26, 2011 —The Spark and the Last Straw: Tunisia and the Fall of Ben Ali

Filiu, Jean-Pierre. The Arab Revolution: Ten Lessons from the Democratic Uprising. London: C. Hurst & Co. Publishers, 2011.

– Chapters 4-6, “Social Networks Work”, “Leaderless Movements can Win”, and “The Alternative to Democracy is Chaos”

Angrist, Michele Penner. “Morning In Tunisia: The Frustrations of the Arab World Boil Over“. Foreign Affairs, 16/01/2011.

Henry, Clement M. and Robert Springborg. “A Tunisian Solution for Egypt’s Military: Why Egypt’s Military will not be Able to Govern“. Foreign Affairs, 21/02/2011.

Shehata, Dina. “The Fall of the Pharaoh: How Hosni Mubarak’s Reign Came to an End“. Foreign Affairs, May 2011.

Images of Revolution“, Al-Jazeera World. 19/10/2011.

Recommended Reading:

Levinson, Charles. “Tunisia Vote Stands as Test for the Region“. The Wall Street Journal, 10/22/2011.

– Discussion of the roles of the military, the elite, and the Islamists in Tunisia

– The role of transitional mechanisms in Democracy

– A critical overview of what the press has been saying about the recent Tunisian elections, as well as a discussion of popular politics in Tunisia (political parties and the Constituent Assembly)

– A conversation on Ben Ali’s regime in Tunisia, including security forces, function and character of government

– U.S. role and interests in Tunisian Revolution 

– Showed the al-Jazeera World Piece “Images of Revolution”

November 2, 2011 — Cutting Loose the Pharaoh: Muburak and Tahrir Square

Filiu, Jean-Pierre. The Arab Revolution: Ten Lessons from the Democratic Uprising. London: C. Hurst & Co. Publishers, 2011

Chapter 7-9, “Islamists Must Choose”, “Jihadis could Become Obsolete”, and “Palestine is still the Mantra”

Anderson, Odd. “Tunisia’s Elections May Reveal New Power Center”. Stratfor, 22/10/2011.

“Libya: The First Regime Change of the Arab Spring”. Stratfor, 23/08/2011.

Friedman, George. “Mediterranean – Hindu Kush: Rethinking the Region”. Stratfor,  . 

Springborg, Robert. “Game Over: The Chance for Democracy in Egypt is Lost”. Foreign Affairs: The Middle East Channel, 11/02/2011.

Churchill, Eric. “Putting Tunisian Democracy to the Test”. Foreign Affairs: The Middle East Channel, 17/10/2011.

Ajami, Fouad. “The Sorrows of Egypt: A Tale of Two Men”. Foreign Affairs: The Middle East Channel, October 1995.

Maged, Amani. “Islamists Against Islamists”. Al-Ahram Weekly, 26/2011.

Howeidy, Amira. “Revolution Really Defeats Predictions, Political Calculations”.

“How Facebook Changed the World: The Arab Spring”

Part 1: 

Part 2: 

Part 3: 

Part 4: 

“¢ Definition of Catalytic Event: An action that causes a series of escalating and ongoing reactions, as well as an image which becomes symbolic of the times

“¢ Discussion of Egypt as most problematic region of the Arab Awakening because the former power structure endures, they only change is the top of the pyramid is removed, and whether or not the events in Egypt are a revolution

“¢ comparisons between roles of military in Tunisia and Egypt, and the “regime changes” that these accompany

“¢ Role of Supreme Council of Armed Forces (SCAF) in modern Egypt, as well as the historical role of the military in government, business, and society

“¢ The construction of the military under Mubarak so as to prevent lateral communication and a military overthrow, as well as separation between military and other security forces

“¢ Development of Authoritarianism in Mubarak’s Egypt, no unions, dissent, or ability to defy in exchange for subsidized education, employment, food, and healthcare, and the change in this authoritarianism with the request for loans from the IMF

“¢ Viewing of first half of “How Facebook Changed the World”

November 9, 2011 —  Eid Al Adha Break — No Class

November 16, 2011 — Midterm Exam

US Policy and the Middle East (The Arab Awakening)

Midterm Examination — November 16, 2011

Mark Danner — Al Quds Unviersity

Instructions: Please answer no fewer than eight of the following ten questions (8 out of 10). Answer more if you like but a minimum of eight. Watch the clock, pace yourself and make sure you will have time to answer at least eight questions.
    Give specific answers to the questions posed, then provide broader analysis, as the questions indicate.
    You will be graded on on how convincingly and fully you answer what is asked, on the cogency of your answers, and finally on your success in relating your answersspecifically to the assigned reading and to the relevant class discussions. Give your opinions but make sure to provide arguments to back them up.
    Write clearly and legibly. Write your full name on each separate page. Number the pages clearly. Watch the time and good luck.
    Read the questions carefully and make sure you answer them fully.

1.  Resistance Bloc. What is this? Who belongs to it? What are their interests and policies? What is the significance of the term and what does it tell us about US policy in the Middle East?

2.  Catalytic Moment. What does this term mean? How does it relate to what has happened in Tunisia, Egypt, Syria and elsewhere during the last year? Give examples of such moments and describe what happened and how.

3.  US Interests in the Middle East. What are these interests? What does the US want to achieve in the Middle East? Do its actions serve its interests? Why or why not? How have those actions changed during the last year, if at all?

4.  New Media and the Arab Spring. What does this term mean? What role did the so-called New Media play in the Arab Spring, if any? Give specific examples? How important was it? Do you think its importance has been exaggerated, or understated? Explain.

5.  The Tunisian Military and the Jasmine Revolution. What role did the Tunisian Army play in that country’s revolution. How did it resemble and how did it differ from the role that the Egyptian military played? How have these different roles affected the transitions in each country?

“Either Me Or Chaos.” This is supposedly a strategy of many longtime Arab rulers. What does it mean? How have we seen this strategy play out? Has it been effective? Why or why not?

6.  Core to Periphery, Periphery to Core. These terms suggest two different ways a revolution might unfold across a given country. Give examples of each of them from the events of the last year in the region. Compare these two ways of unfolding. Be specific.

7.  People Against People, People Against Regime, Regime Against Regime.What do these phrases mean when it comes to the events of the Arab Awakening? Give examples of each of them from those events during the last year.

8.  Revolution, Revolt, Uprising. What do these terms mean? What makes a revolution? Where do you think we have seen a true revolution in the region? Give specific examples and specific arguments. Also give an example of an uprising that might have seemed to be a revolution but really isn’t. Convince me why this is so.

9.  Future of the Arab Spring. Give your views on where we are in the revolutionary — or not so revolutionary — process of what has been called the Arab Spring. Give your views on how successful and how significant these events have been and sketch out what you think their future unfolding holds. Cite and criticize the views of some of the analysts we have read in making your arguments.

November 23, 2011 – Qaddafi’s Libya and the Threat of Civil War: The West Intervenes

Filiu, Jean-Pierre. The Arab Revolution: Ten Lessons from the Democratic Uprising. London: C. Hurst & Co. Publishers, 2011

Chapter 10, “No Domino Effect in the Renaissance”

Sharp, Gene. From Dictatorship to Democracy: A Conceptual Framework for Liberation. Boston: The Albert Einstein Institution, 1993.

“Egypt’s Transition Six Months on: From Diversity to Divisiveness”. The Brookings Institution: Foreign Policy Reports, 4 Aug 2011.

“¢ Special guest speaker:  New Yorker Staff writer John Lee Anderson

“¢ Current state of “revolution” in Egypt; not a revolution, “Mubarakism without Mubarak”

“¢ State sponsored terror in Egypt: the use of thugs to carry out regime’s dirty work, as well as the use of social media as state sponsored terror, committing horrifying acts that will be spread through social media and deter further protests

“¢ Agent Provacateur: A state sponsored agent who infiltrates the crowd/demonstration, and incites the crowd to violence/ embarassing action which will destabilize the movement

“¢ Libya: NTC replaces Qaddafi as legitimate ruling body

“¢ Geographical separations of Libya as Southern, Eastern, and Western Groups

“¢ History: Italian invasion in early 1900s, “independent” Libya set up by Britain after WWII, King Idriss in 1951, U.S. develops petroleum reserves in the 1960s

“¢ Qaddafi comes late 60s, emulates Nasser, rules country until mid 2011

“¢ Qaddafi strongly supports Palestinians, funds OPEC attack, eventually alienates most Arab Regimes, turns Eyes southward to Africa

“¢ Detailing of the events of the Revolution, especially the siege of Benghazi

“¢ Libya struggles to recover after Qaddafi due to extreme tenure of his rule and suppression of dissent, i.e. Repressed Culture of Debate, prevented any successful conversation in the country regarding the regime, most are unqualified to run the country aside from those formerly part of the Qaddafi regime

November 30, 2011 —  Bahrain: an Eye on the Gulf and the Continuing Struggle in Egypt

(Filiu, Jean-Pierre. The Arab Revolution: Ten Lessons from the Democratic Uprising. London: C. Hurst & Co. Publishers, 2011

Chapter 10, “No Domino Effect in the Renaissance”

Sharp, Gene. From Dictatorship to Democracy: A Conceptual Framework for Liberation. Boston: The Albert Einstein Institution, 1993.)

Bahrain Commission of Inquiry. “Report of the Bahrain Commission of Inquiry.” Presented in Manama, 23 November 2010.

Schenker, David, and Eric Trager. “Egypt’s Revolution Continues”. The Washington Institute for Near East Policy, 21 Nov 2011.

“Obama Administration Presses Egyptian Military Regime to Give up Power”. The Associated Press: The National Memo, 25 Nov 2011.

“¢ Presentation on Bahrain: History of the State, current governing bodies, population and economic overview; brief history of uprisings in Bahrain including early 1990s Democratic uprising (considered first in the region)

“¢ Role of foreign powers in Bahrain: The US fifth fleet stationed at Manama, the Sunni monarchy supported by the Saudi royals, the Shi’a majority supported by Iran

“¢ Overview of international influence in the uprisings including the security forces sent by the Gulf corporation council, the soldiers sent by Saudi Arabia, the police officers sent by the UAE, and the navy sent by Kuwait

“¢ Bahrain as a battleground between Iran and Saudi Arabia (and by proxy the US); Saudi interests regarding the Shi’a populations of the oil-producing Eastern Province

“¢ Discussion: Why is Bahrain often overlooked in the Arab Spring? Why does the US choose to be silent while supporting other revolutions? Who will come out on top in Bahrain, the people or the government?

“¢ Examination of the doctors in Bahrain who tended to protesters and their injuries: their trial in military court for treason, their subjection to torture, and the role Al Jazeera played in spreading the story

“¢ Presentation on the use of social media in the Egyptian revolution(s), such as the use of new media, cell phones, facebook, and the role that such media played in the revolution, such that it could not have happened without it

December 7, 2011 — Egypt’s Elections and Syria’s Sacrifices

Sharp, Gene. From Dictatorship to Democracy: A Conceptual Framework for Liberation. Boston: The Albert Einstein Institution, 1993.)

Bahrain Commission of Inquiry. “Report of the Bahrain Commission of Inquiry.” Presented in Manama, 23 November 2010.

Human Rights Council. “Report of the independent international commission of inquiry on the Syrian Arab Republic”. 23 November 2011.

France24 International News. “Homs, The Epicentre of the Syrian Revolution”. 02/12/2011.

“¢ Coverage of Egypt’s recent Elections: Arab spring moves toward political Islam with the Muslim brotherhood earning 40% of the votes and the Salafis earning 20%, while the Liberal Democratic parties earn 28%-30% of the vote

“¢ Implications of the elections on the continued role of the military in Egypt

“¢ Current circumstance of the military in Egypt, increasingly attacked by harsher rhetoric from outspoken leaders like el-Baradei, as well as increased pressure from the Obama administration for the removal of the military from power (and role of US foreign aid in Egyptian military)

“¢ Discussion of the position of the Muslim brotherhood: currently taking a cautious stance, taking account of the young brothers willingness to demonstrate in Tahrir, despite the leaders decision to remain neutral

“¢ Should MB be as distant as they are currently with the situation in Egypt? Discussion: yes, Egypt will not recover quickly and no group can change that; MB does not want to take the hit for being unable to pull Egypt out of its slump

“¢ Presentation on Syria: History of Syria, how the Assads came to power, the consideration of Syria as a non-democratic state, the casualties of the Syrian uprising;summary of events of the uprising, the International reaction to the bloodbath, specifically the UN resolutions, sanctions, and the position of the Arab League. Question: Is the situation in Syria a revolution?

“¢ Comparison of Syria with other major regimes, reasons for success in Egypt, Tunisia, and Libya, while Syria stumbles

“¢ Discussion: Is the Syrian uprising instigated by international powers? Or is it an internally formulated movement?

“¢ View footage from Homs, from France24 news agency

December 8, 2011 — Make-up Class: The Ongoing Syrian Struggle and a Look back at Libya 

Sharp, Gene. From Dictatorship to Democracy: A Conceptual Framework for Liberation. Boston: The Albert Einstein Institution, 1993.)

Bahrain Commission of Inquiry. “Report of the Bahrain Commission of Inquiry.” Presented in Manama, 23 November 2010.

Human Rights Council. “Report of the independent international commission of inquiry on the Syrian Arab Republic”. 23 November 2011.

“¢ Discussion Round 2: Role of Russia and China in the sanctions against Syria, as well as their preventions of international intervention. Will the regime fall? Will the “revolution” succeed?

“¢ Overview of Syria’s population demographics: 74% Sunni, 10% Alawite, 3% Shi’a

“¢ Outline of the regime: Assad’s interconnections in the government and the role of his family members in lead positions- how the regime is structured to endure (regime a result of a military coup, designed to prevent one)

“¢ Discussion: How to overthrow the regime based on its infrastructure? *focus on external forces, Syria’s role as a puppet of other foreign powers 

“¢ Question: Would a successful revolution make things better? Perhaps not, the potential for sectarian conflict could arise from a destabilized power structure, could lead to civil war

“¢ Presentation of Libya: History of Kaddafee’s Libya and the revolution

“¢ Qadaffi’s control of the press, suppression of dissent, centralization of government institutions around himself: prevents the country from functioning without him

“¢ Power Vacuum in Gaddaffi’s absence ensures that no organization can succeed him

“¢ Result is many civilians, still armed, running around the country with guns

“¢ Presentation of final paper topics 

December 14th, 2011 – Class Cancelled due to Strikes

December 15, 2011 (Make-up Double Class) — The Arab World is a Big Place: The Overlooked Corners

Filkins, Dexter. “After the Uprising: Can Protesters find a Path between Dictatorship and Anarchy?”. The New Yorker: New York, 04/11/11.
Pelham, Nicolas. “Libya: How They Did It”. The New York Review: New York, 29/08/11.

Pelham, Nicolas. “The Battle for Libya”. The New York Review: New York, 10/03/11.

“How Facebook Changed the World: The Arab Spring”

Part 1: 

Part 2: 

Part 3: 

Part 4: 

“¢ A look at the potential futures of some states, including Egypt, Syria, Libya, Tunisia, and Morocco

“¢ Presentation on Jordan: the make-up and leadership of Jordan, as well as the historical succession of the kingdom

“¢ Jordanian prelude to the Arab Spring: High unemployment rates and rising food prices cause tension in early 2011 (increasing flow of refugees from Iraq and the Palestinian population also cause economic tension); Jordanians respond with “Day of Anger” on January 14

“¢ King Abdullah responds with immediate concessions to protesters, including reduced prices on food staples and reduced taxes on workers (costs government $225 million); effectively quites protesters and prevents revolution

“¢ Discussion of reasons for lack of revolution in Jordan: Jordan has a strong and efficient intelligence service which preempts the revolution; there is a lack of free speech in Jordan, and most of the Jordanian population is Palestinian, could have there passports revoked if they speak out

“¢ Presentation of Morocco: Demographics of the country, its governmental organization (parliamentary monarchy), History of King Muhammad’s regime

“¢ The beginnings of the protests as a result of food prices and lack of dissent

“¢ A timeline of events, how the protests grew in major cities and eventually the capital, Rabat

“¢ King responds with complete constitutional reform, allowing elections for the parliament, as well as a improvements to Democracy and the Law in the state

“¢ A discussion of the role of legitimacy in the future of Arab states, as well as the roles of secular Autocracies, Economic changes, and political reform

“¢ Viewing of parts 3 and 4 of report “How Facebook Changed the World: The Arab Spring”

December 21st, 2011 – Tour d’Horizon and Final Remarks

Lynch, Mark. “Rached Ghannouchi: The FP Interview”. Foreign Policy, 5 December 2011.

Lynch, Mark. “The Big Think Behind the Arab Spring”. Foreign Policy, December 2011.

Bahrain Commission of Inquiry. “Report of the Bahrain Commission of Inquiry.” Presented in Manama, 23 November 2010.


“¢ Tour d’Horizon: An overview of the future of the Arab Spring; Libya deteriorates under lack of central leadership, Yemen’s complicated relationship with the US, Syria’s acceptance of Arab League observers, Egypt’s elections move forward amidst utter chaos

“¢ Hand in Final Paper

“¢ Presentation on Egypt: Background, geopolitical influence and perspective, demographics

“¢ Overview of timeline of revolution, analysis of the events, role of social media in organizing protests and bringing down Mubarak

“¢ Egyptian Elections: early dissent from weaker political parties looking to block elections, fearing that success would go to the already established parties

“¢ A close look at the makeup of the committee to elect the parliament, seats to people, parties, and government chosen officials

“¢ The role of the People’s Assembly: drafting a new constitution

“¢ The progression of elections in their stages and in depth analysis of the complexity of the process

“¢ Discussion of role of protests in the elections: why are they still happening? what is their influence on the elections? When will they finally stop (no end in sight)

“¢ Back to the regional view: The moment of plasticity, when everything seems possible. However once the dust settles the mold forms, and hardens, and politics sets in

“¢ What is this “Arab Revolution”? it isn’t over, so what do we call it? The incomplete revolution? A revolutionary process? A potential revolution?

“¢ Presentation on Yemen: Brief history, including Ottoman and British rule, as well as demographics, unemployment, income, and literacy rates

“¢ American impressions for Yemen: breeding ground for Al Qaeda and its geopolitical position as on a crucial choke point on the mouth of the Red Sea (sway over the Suez Canal)

“¢ Political Reality in Yemen: it is a young, developing country without a stable government and is open to influece from Jihadists 

“¢ Yemen’s government proves that it is not up to the task of securing the threat of Al Qaeda and the Jihadists, and the country is constantly under the threat of sectarian separatist movements

“¢ Final Remarks